[ad_1] adjective
  1. requiring great exertion; laborious; difficult: an arduous undertaking.
  2. requiring or using much energy and vigor; strenuous: making an arduous effort.
  3. hard to climb; steep: an arduous path up the hill.
  4. hard to endure; full of hardships; severe: an arduous winter.


  1. requiring great physical or mental effort; difficult to accomplish; strenuous
  2. hard to endure; harsharduous conditions
  3. hard to overcome or surmount; steep or difficultan arduous track

1530s, “hard to accomplish, difficult to do,” from Latin arduus “high, steep,” also figuratively, “difficult,” from PIE root *eredh- “to grow, high” (see ortho-). Literal sense of “high, steep, difficult to climb,” attested in English from 1709.


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