< /əˈri θə/, born 1942, U.S. singer.
- (in 14th- and 15th-century England) a substantial landholder of free but not noble birth
- Aretha (əˈriːθə) born 1942, US soul, pop, and gospel singer; noted for her songs “Respect” (1967), “I Say a Little Prayer” (1968), and, with George Michael, “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” (1987)
- Benjamin 1706–90, American statesman, scientist, and author. He helped draw up the Declaration of Independence (1776) and, as ambassador to France (1776–85), he negotiated an alliance with France and a peace settlement with Britain. As a scientist, he is noted particularly for his researches in electricity, esp his invention of the lightning conductor
- Sir John . 1786–1847, English explorer of the Arctic: lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania) (1836–43): died while on a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage
- Rosalind . 1920–58, British x-ray crystallographer. She contributed to the discovery of the structure of DNA, before her premature death from cancer
surname attested from late 12c., Middle English Frankeleyn, from Anglo-French fraunclein “a land-owner of free but not noble birth,” from Old French franc “free” (see frank (adj.)), with Germanic suffix also found in chamberlain.
The Franklin stove (1787) so called because it was invented by U.S. scientist/politician Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790). In early 19c., lightning rods often were called Franklins.
- British biophysicist. Her x-ray diffraction studies of DNA led to the description of the full structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick.
- American public official, scientist, inventor, and writer who fully established the distinction between negative and positive electricity, proved that lightning and electricity are identical, and suggested that buildings could be protected by lightning conductors. He also invented bifocal glasses, established the direction of the prevailing storm track in North America and determined the existence of the Gulf Stream.