- the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Empire in a.d. 476. Capital: Constantinople.
- the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East, esp after the deposition of the last emperor in Rome (476 ad). It was finally extinguished by the fall of Constantinople, its capital, in 1453See also
An empire, centered at, that began as the eastern portion of the ; it included parts of and western . As the western Roman Empire declined, the Byzantine Empire grew in importance, and it remained an important power in Europe until the eleventh century. The Byzantine Empire was conquered by Turkish forces in the fifteenth century.
The Byzantine emperor was an absolute ruler (see ), and the laws and customs associated with his empire were strict and complex. His rule was supported by the in the region, which later became the independent .