- 1904–97, Chinese Communist leader and China’s de facto leader: held various titles in the Communist Party until his official retirement in 1989.
- 1904–97, Chinese Communist statesman; deputy prime minister (1973–76; 1977–80) and the dominant figure in the Chinese government from 1977 until his death. He was twice removed from office (1967–73, 1976–77) and rehabilitated. He introduced economic liberalization, but suppressed demands for political reform, most notably in 1989 when over 2500 demonstrators were killed by the military in Tiananmen Square in Beijing
A long-time leader of the Communist party in China, he was purged during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution for criticizing the excesses of Mao Zedong, but he returned to power in the 1970s and guided China on a course of pragmatic economic reforms.