- the amount by which a closed traverse fails to satisfy the requirements of a true mathematical figure, as the length of line joining the true and computed position of the same point.
- the ratio of this linear error to the perimeter of the traverse.
- (for angles) the amount by which the sum of the observed angles fails to equal the true sum.
- (in leveling) the amount by which an elevation determined by a series of levels fails to agree with an established elevation.
- surveying the amount by which a computed, plotted, or observed quantity or position differs from the true or established one, esp when plotting a closed traverseAlso called: closing error