gladys


noun

  1. a female given name.

noun

  1. Elizabeth,1911–79, U.S. poet.
  2. HazelGladys, 1906–1998, U.S. chemist and businesswoman.
  3. John Peale,1892–1944, U.S. poet and essayist.
  4. Morris (Gilbert),1893–1973, U.S. humorist, poet, and biographer.
  5. William AveryBilly, 1894–1956, Canadian aviator: helped to establish Canadian air force.

noun

  1. (in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Greek Orthodox Churches) a clergyman having spiritual and administrative powers over a diocese or province of the ChurchSee also suffragan Related adjective: episcopal
  2. (in some Protestant Churches) a spiritual overseer of a local church or a number of churches
  3. a chesspiece, capable of moving diagonally over any number of unoccupied squares of the same colour
  4. mulled wine, usually port, spiced with oranges, cloves, etc

noun

  1. Elizabeth . 1911–79, US poet, who lived in Brazil. Her poetry reflects her travelling experience, esp in the tropics

fem. proper name, Welsh Gwladys, probably a Brythonified form of Latin Claudia (q.v.).

n.

Old English bisceop “bishop, high priest (Jewish or pagan),” from Late Latin episcopus, from Greek episkopos “watcher, overseer,” a title for various government officials, later taken over in a Church sense, from epi- “over” (see epi-) + skopos “watcher,” from skeptesthai “look at” (see scope (n.1)). Given a specific sense in the Church, but the word also was used in the New Testament as a descriptive title for elders, and continues as such in some non-hierarchical Christian sects.

A curious example of word-change, as effected by the genius of different tongues, is furnished by the English bishop and the French évêque. Both are from the same root, furnishing, perhaps the only example of two words from a common stem so modifying themselves in historical times as not to have a letter in common. (Of course many words from a far off Aryan stem are in the same condition.) The English strikes off the initial and terminal syllables, leaving only piscop, which the Saxon preference for the softer labial and hissing sounds modified into bishop. Évêque (formerly evesque) merely softens the p into v and drops the last syllable. [William S. Walsh, “Handy-Book of Literary Curiosities,” Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott, 1892]

Late Latin episcopus in Spanish became obispo. Cognate with Old Saxon biscop, Old High German biscof. The chess piece (formerly archer, before that alfin) was so called from 1560s.

  1. American microbiologist. He shared a 1989 Nobel Prize for discovering a sequence of genes that can cause cancer when mutated.

  1. American molecular biologist who, working with Harold Varmus, discovered oncogenes. For this work, Bishop and Varmus shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

In some Christian churches, a person appointed to oversee a group of priests or ministers and their congregations. In the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Roman Catholic Church, bishops are considered the successors of the Twelve Apostles.

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