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On the job “hard at work” is from 1882. Job lot is from obsolete sense of “cartload, lump,” which might also ultimately be from gob. Job security attested by 1954; job description by 1920; job-sharing by 1972.

Biblical masc. proper name, from Hebrew Iyyobh, which according to some scholars is literally “hated, persecuted,” from ayyabh “he was hostile to,” related to ebhah “enmity.” Others say it means “the penitent one.”

In the Old Testament, a man whose faith was severely tested by Satan, with God’s permission. Job was the most prosperous and happy of men, who faithfully praised God for God’s goodness. In order to get him to curse God, Satan destroyed all that Job owned, killed his children, and struck Job himself with vile sores from head to foot. False friends of Job’s suggested that he should abandon his beliefs (see Job’s comforters). But even in absolute misery, Job would not curse God, saying instead, “The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away: blessed be the name of the Lord.” As a reward for his steadfast faith, God healed Job and “gave him twice as much as he had before.”

see do a job on; hatchet man (job); lie down (on the job); on the job; put-up job; snow job; soft job.

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