- Mercurius, died a.d. 535, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 533–535.
- called the Good . 1319–64, king of France (1350–64): captured by the English at Poitiers (1356) and forced to sign treaties (1360) surrendering SW France to England
- called the Perfect . 1455–95, king of Portugal (1481–95): sponsored Portuguese expansion in the New World and reduced the power of the aristocracy
- surnamed Casimir Vasa . 1609–72, king of Poland (1648–68), who lost much territory to neighbouring countries: abdicated