- Also called Middle Empire. the period in the history of ancient Egypt, c2000–1785 b.c., comprising the 11th to 14th dynasties.Compare New Kingdom, Old Kingdom.
- the 18 inner provinces of China, taken collectively.
- (loosely) China.
- the Chinese Empire: originally so called from its supposed location in the center of the earth.
- a period of Egyptian history extending from the late 11th to the 13th dynasty (?2040–?1670 bc)
- the former Chinese empire (from the belief that it lay at the centre of the earth)
- the original 18 provinces of China; China proper