- a former Spanish viceroyalty in NW South America, comprising the present republics of Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama.
- early name of Colombia (before the secession of Panama).
- a former Spanish presidency and later viceroyalty in South America. At its greatest extent it consisted of present-day Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador
- the name of Colombia when it formed, with Panama, part of Great Colombia (1819–30)