- the formation of new combinations of genes, either naturally, by crossing over or independent assortment, or in the laboratory by direct manipulation of genetic material.
- genetics any of several processes by which genetic material of different origins becomes combined. It most commonly occurs between two sets of parental chromosomes during production of germ cells
- physics the union of free electrons and holes in a semiconductor or of free ions and electrons in a plasma
- The natural formation in offspring of genetic combinations not present in parents by the processes of crossing over or independent assortment.