- two contiguous duchies of Denmark that were a center of international tension in the 19th century: Prussia annexed Schleswig 1864 and Holstein 1866.
- a state of N Germany, including the former duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg and part of Schleswig. 6073 sq. mi. (15,728 sq. km). Capital: Kiel.
- a state of N Germany: drained chiefly by the River Elbe; mainly agricultural. Capital: Kiel. Pop: 2 823 000 (2003 est). Area: 15 658 sq km (6045 sq miles)