- a city in and the capital of Iran, in the N part: wartime conference of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin 1943.
- a republic in SW Asia. About 635,000 sq. mi. (1,644,650 sq. km). Capital: Teheran.
- a republic in SW Asia, between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf: a monarchy until an Islamic revolution in 1979 headed by the Ayatollah Khomeini when the Shah was obliged to leave the country. Consists chiefly of a high central desert plateau almost completely surrounded by mountains, a semitropical fertile region along the Caspian coast, and a hot and dry area beside the Persian Gulf. Oil is the most important export. Official language: Persian (Iranian or Farsi). Official religion: Muslim majority. Currency: rial. Capital: Tehran. Pop: 79 853 900 (2013 est). Area: 1 647 050 sq km (635 932 sq miles)Former name (until 1935): Persia Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran See also Persian Empire
from Persian Iran, from Middle Persian Ērān “(land) of the Iranians,” genitive plural of ēr- “an Iranian,” from Old Iranian *arya- (Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-) “Iranian”, from Indo-Iranian *arya- or *ārya- (see Aryan), a self-designation, perhaps meaning “compatriot.” In 1935 the government of Reza Shah Pahlavi requested governments with which it had diplomatic relations to call his country Iran, after the indigenous name, rather than the Greek-derived Persia. Capital of Iran and the largest city in the country; located in northern Iran. Republic in the Middle East, bordered by Armenia, the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan to the north; Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east; the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south; and Iraq and Turkey to the west. Its capital and largest city is Teheran.